22.9.2017

Jacklyn H. Lucas

Jacklyn Harrell "Jack" Lucas (February 14, 1928 – June 5, 2008) was an American soldier in World War II who was awarded the Medal of Honor at age 17 as a private first class in the Marine Corps during the Battle of Iwo Jima.

During a close firefight in two trenches between Lucas and three Marines with 11 Japanese soldiers, Lucas saved the lives of the other three Marines from two enemy hand grenades that were thrown into their trench by unhesitatingly placing himself on one grenade, while in the next instant pulling the other grenade under him. The grenade he covered with his body exploded, and wounded him severely; the other grenade did not explode. He is the youngest Marine and the youngest serviceman in World War II to be awarded the United States' highest military decoration for valor. He later reenlisted in the United States Army and reached the rank of captain.
Jacklyn Harold Lucas
Lucas JH.jpg   A light blue neck ribbon with a gold star shaped medallion hanging from it. The ribbon is similar in shape to a bowtie with 13 white stars in the center of the ribbon.
Nickname(s)Jack
BornFebruary 14, 1928
Plymouth, North Carolina, U.S.
DiedJune 5, 2008 (aged 80)
Forrest General Hospital
Hattiesburg, Mississippi, U.S.
Allegiance United States of America
Service/branch United States Marine Corps
 United States Army
Years of service1942–1945 (U.S. Marine Corps)
1961–1965 (U.S. Army)
RankPrivate first class (US Marine Corps)
Captain (U.S. Army)
Unit1st Battalion, 26th Marine Regiment5th Marine Division
82nd Airborne Division
Battles/wars -Battle of Iwo Jima
AwardsMedal of Honor
Purple Heart Medal
Lucas was born in Plymouth, North Carolina on February 14, 1928. After his father, a tobacco farmer, died when he was ten, his mother sent him to nearby Edwards Military Institute in Salemburg. He rose to be a cadet captain, and was the captain of the football team. He was an all-around sportsman, also taking part in baseball, softball, basketball, boxing, wrestling, horseback riding, trap and skeet shooting, and hunting.

He was only 14 years old, but had a muscular build, was 1.73 m tall, and weighed 82 kg, when he enlisted in the Marine Corps Reserve at Norfolk, Virginia[4] without his mother's consent on August 8, 1942. He gave his age as 17 and forged his mother's name, and was sent to Marine Corps Recruit Depot Parris Island, South Carolina, for recruit training. During his rifle qualification, he qualified as a sharpshooter.

                      Kuvahaun tulos haulle Jacklyn H. Lucas
He was next assigned to the Marine Barracks at Naval Air Station Jacksonville, Florida. In June 1943, he was transferred to the 21st Replacement Battalion at Marine Corps Air Station New River, North Carolina, and one month later he went to the 25th Replacement Battalion, and successfully completed schooling at Camp Lejeune, North Carolina, which qualified him as a heavy machine gun crewman.[5] He was sent by train to San Diego with his unit. He left the continental United States on November 4, 1943, and the following month he joined the 6th Base Depot of the V Amphibious Corps at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. On January 29, 1944, he was promoted to private first class.

On January 10, 1945, according to statements he made to his comrades, Lucas walked out of camp to join a combat organization wearing a khaki uniform and carrying his dungarees and field shoes in a roll under his arm. He was declared UA (Unauthorized Absence) when he failed to return that night, and a month later he was reduced to the rank of private. He stowed away on board the USS Deuel, which was transporting the 1st Battalion, 26th Marines of the 5th Marine Division to Iwo Jima. 
                      Kuvahaun tulos haulle Jacklyn H. Lucas
                      Kuvahaun tulos haulle Jacklyn H. Lucas
On February 8, the day before he would have been placed on the Marine Corps "deserter list", he turned himself in to Marine Captain Robert Dunlap, Commanding Officer of C Company. He was taken by Captain Dunlap to the battalion's commanding officer, Lieutenant Colonel Daniel Pollock, and was assigned to Dunlap's rifle company as a rifleman. On February 14, Lucas had his 17th birthday while at sea five days before the invasion of Iwo Jima began.

On February 19, Lucas participated in the 5th Division's landing on Iwo Jima with C Company, 1st Battalion, 26th Marines. On February 20, Lucas and three Marines who were members of a four-man fire team from one of C Company's platoons were creeping through a twisting ravine towards or at an enemy airstrip when they spotted an enemy pillbox and got into a trench for cover. They then spotted 11 Japanese soldiers in a parallel trench (they had a tunnel to there from the pillbox) and opened up on them with rifle fire. The Japanese also opened fire and threw two grenades inside the Marines' trench in front of them. 

Lucas spotted the grenades on the ground in front of his comrades and yelled "grenades". He then jumped over a Marine and dove for them, jamming one of them into the volcanic ash and soft sand with his rifle and covering it with his body, while reaching out and pulling the other one beneath him. One grenade exploded, tossing Lucas onto his back and severely wounding him in the right arm and wrist, right leg and thigh, and chest. He was still conscious and barely alive after the blast, holding in his left hand the other grenade, which did not explode. His three comrades were unharmed, and the Japanese soldiers in their trench were all killed; the three Marines left, believing Lucas was dead.
                     Kuvahaun tulos haulle Jacklyn H. Lucas

                     Kuvahaun tulos haulle Jacklyn H. Lucas
Lucas was found by Marines from another unit passing by who called for a navy corpsmen who attended to his wounds and protected him with a carbine from being shot and killed by a Japanese soldier in the trench. He was evacuated by stretcher bearers to the beach, onto an LST to a cargo ship used as a hospital (all the hospital ships were full) and then to the hospital ship Samaritan. He was treated at various field hospitals prior to his arrival in San Francisco, California on March 28, 1945. He eventually underwent 21 surgeries. 

For the rest of his life, there remained about 200 pieces of metal, some the size of 22 caliber bullets, in his body — which set off airport metal detectors. In August, the mark of desertion was removed from his record while he was a patient at the U.S. Naval Hospital at Charleston, South Carolina. On September 18, he was discharged from the Marine Corps Reserve because of disability resulting from his wounds following his reappointment to the rank of private first class.

                     Kuvahaun tulos haulle Jacklyn H. Lucas

On October 5, 1945, Lucas, three sailors, and ten other Marines, including Robert Dunlap, his former company commanding officer on Iwo Jima, were presented the Medal of Honor by President Harry S. Truman during a ceremony on the South Lawn of the White House. Those in attendance at the ceremony included Lucas's mother and brother, Admiral Chester Nimitz, and Secretary of Defense James Forrestal.

Lucas earned a business degree from High Point University and was initiated into the Pi Kappa Alpha fraternity (Delta Omega Chapter). He joined the United States Army in 1961 and served in the 82nd Airborne Division as a paratrooper to conquer his fear of heights. He survived a training jump in which neither of his two parachutes opened. He volunteered for Vietnam, but was not allowed to go there and ended his time as a captain in 1965 at Fort Bragg, North Carolina, training troops for the Vietnam War.

When the keel of the USS Iwo Jima (LHD-7) (christened in 2000) was laid, Lucas placed his Medal of Honor citation in the ship's hull, where it remains sealed.

On August 3, 2006, Lucas, along with 15 other living Marine Medal of Honor recipients, was presented the Medal of Honor flag by Commandant of the Marine Corps General Michael Hagee at the Marine Barracks in Washington, D.C. in front of over 1,000 people, including family, friends, and Marines. Lucas said of the ceremony, "To have these young men here in our presence — it just rejuvenates this old heart of mine. I love the Corps even more knowing that my country is defended by such fine young people."

Lucas died at a hospital in Hattiesburg, Mississippi on June 5, 2008, of leukemia, with family and friends by his side.

On September 18, 2016, Secretary of the Navy Ray Mabus announced that an Arleigh Burke-class destroyer, DDG-125, would be named in honor of Lucas

21.9.2017

The battle of Wizna

The defense of Wizna against overwhelming odds lasted for three days. On September 10, 1939, the bunker commanded by Raginis was the last remaining pocket of resistance. Although heavily wounded, Raginis was still commanding his troops. 

At noon on the third day, the German commander, Heinz Guderian, threatened that all Polish POWs would be shot if the defense of the bunker did not cease.Turning to his men in the shelter, Raginis thanked them for the fact that they were soldiers and did their duty. He then ordered them to surrender and leave the shelter - he would keep his word and not surrender.

On September 7 Raginis' forces (approximately 720 men, out of which roughly 650 were killed) were attacked by more than 42,000 German soldiers. 

To keep the morale of his men high, Raginis pledged that he would not leave his post alive.
Seweryn Biegański, who was the last to leave the shelter, describes the moment.
"The captain looked at me warmly and softly urged me to leave. When I was at the exit, I was hit on my back with strong gust and I heard an explosion."


Raginis then decided to end the resistance and committed suicide by throwing himself on a grenade.

In his diaries, Guderian noted that 900 German soldiers were killed in action, although that number is probably a low estimate. It is certain, however, that the Wehrmacht lost at least 10 tanks and several other AFVs in the struggle.

Destroyed TP-7 tank (Vickers) hit the front panel

The defense of Wizna, despite the clear imbalance of forces, of which the defenders were aware, was significant. It had pinned down the German forces for two days, allowing the remnants of Polish troops in western Poland to defend the capital, Warsaw. It helped gain time for many Polish units and the government leadership to conduct an orderly withdrawal to the Romanian bridgehead (Polish: Przedmoście rumuńskie).


The Germans agreed to allow burial of the corpses of Raginis and Lieutenant Stanisław Brykalski by Kazimierz Puchowicz, a friend of Raginis, next to the bunker where a tree was planted as an impromptu memorial. When the Red Army entered Wizna, the Soviet authorities ordered the bodies to be dug up and moved next to the Łomża - Białystok road, where an obelisk stands today. 
His symbolic grave is located next to the ruins of the bunker in which he died.
---------------
Kuvahaun tulos haulle wladyslaw raginisWładysław Raginis (June 27, 1908 – September 10, 1939) was a Polish military commander during the Polish Defensive War of 1939 of a small force holding the Polish fortified defense positions against a vastly larger invasion during the Battle of Wizna. Because the positions were held at great cost for three days before being annihilated with few survivors, Wizna is referred to as the Polish Thermopylae and Captain Raginis as a modern Leonidas.


Raginis was born in Dźwińsk (Daugavpils), Vitebsk Governorate, Russian Empire (present-day Latvia) to a landowning family with patriotic traditions. Soon after graduating from a gymnasium in 1927, he joined the Infantry NCO School in Komorowo near Ostrów Mazowiecka where he was a mediocre student and completed his studies in 1928. He then completed a short practice of the military and the same year he enrolled at the Infantry Officers School in Ostrów Mazowiecka.

One of his schoolmates recalled
"He had a borderland accent, and was quiet and shy. Slim, small, blond hair .... "

After graduating on July 15, 1930, he was assigned to the 76th Infantry Regiment stationed in Grodno, where he was a platoon commander and instructor-lecturer at the School Cadet Corps. In 1939, as a distinction, he was advanced to lieutenant and then to captain and assigned to the elite Border Defence Corps (KOP) as the commander of the 3rd company, heavy machine gun battalion, of the Border Defence Corps Regiment "Sarny" under the command of Lt-Colonel Nikodem Sulik.

                   Kuvahaun tulos haulle polish troops 1939

In the late summer of 1939, the "Sarny" Regiment sent the bulk of its forces to Upper Silesia to man the Fortified Area Silesia, some units, including Raginis, instead went to Osowiec Fortress, near the border with East Prussia.

In anticipation of the outbreak of the Second World War, on September 2, 1939, Major Jakub Fober gave Raginis command of all the Wizna Fortified Area, a buffer of 9 kilometres (5.6 miles) between the Narew River and Biebrza River, which was part of defensive line of Independent Operational Group "Narew" on the right wing of Polish forces.
 "Wizna" secured a major artery of communication, the Łomża – Białystok road and the Zambrów – Osowiec railway.

It is worth noting that some of the shelters were incomplete as war broke out, some had little to no ventilation, many of them not camouflaged and some were not fitted with armored observation domes. The incomplete state of the shelters significantly reduced the combat capability of the emplacements.

20.9.2017

Vangit - Soviet war prisoner 1941 - 1944


                     

                     
                                                The Continuation War. The first prisoners

Continuation War 
The number of Soviet prisoners of war during the Continuation War (1941-1944) was around 64,000. Most of them were captured in 1941 (56,000 persons).  The first Soviet POWs were taken in June 1941 and were transferred to reserve prisons in Karvia, Köyliö, Huittinen and Pelso (a village in modern-day municipality of Vaala). 

Soon Finnish administration realized that the number of POWs was much higher than initially estimated, and established 32 new Prison Camps in 1941-1944. However, all of them were not used at the same time as POWs were used as a Labor Force in different projects around the country. 

The Finns did not pay much attention to the living conditions of the Soviet POWs at the beginning of the war, as the war was expected to be of short duration. The quantity and quality of the camp staff was very low, as the more qualified men were at the front. It was not until the middle of 1942 that the quantity and quality of the camp staff was improved. There was a shortage of labor in Finland and the authorities assigned POWs to forest and agricultural work, as well as the construction of fortification lines. Some Soviet officers cooperated with the Finnish authorities and were released from prison by the end of the war. 

Finnic prisoners who were captured on the fronts or transferred by Germany were separated from other Soviet POWs. At the end of 1942 volunteers could join the Finnish Battalion Heimopataljoona 3, which consisted of Finnic peoples such as Karelians, Ingrian Finns, Votes and Veps.

Prisoner exchange with Germany 
About 2,600-2,800 Soviet prisoners of war were handed over to the Germans in exchange for roughly 2,200 Finnish prisoners of war held by the Germans. Most of the prisoners transferred to Germany (about 2,000) joined the Russian Liberation Army. The rest, Mostly Army and political officials (among them a name-based estimation of 74 Jews) died in Nazi concentration camps.  
Sometimes these handovers were demanded in return for arms or food. 

Deaths 
Most of the deaths among Soviet POWs, 16,136, occurred in the ten-month period from December 1941 to September 1942. Prisoners died due to bad camp conditions and shelter, and health care. About a thousand POWs, 5 percent of total fatalities, were shot, primarily in Escape attempts.  Food was particularly scarce in 1942 in Finland due to bad harvest. Punishment for Escape attempts or serious violations of camp rules included solitary confinement and execution. Out of 64,188 Soviet POWs, from 18,318  to 19,085  died in Finnish prisoner of war Camps.

In 1942, the number of prisoner deaths had a negative effect on Finland's international Reputation. The Finnish government decided to improve living conditions and allowed prisoners to work outside their Camps.

The hostilities between Finland and the Soviet Union ceased in September 1944, and the first Soviet POWs were handed over to the Soviet Union on 15 October 1944. The transfer was completed by the next month. Some of the POWs escaped during the transport, and some of them were unwilling to return to the Soviet Union. Furthermore, Finland handed over 2,546 German POWs from the Lapland War to the Soviet Union. 
-------------------
After the Continuation War, Finland handed over all Soviet and German prisoners of war in accordance with the 10th article of the Moscow Armistice. Furthermore, the article also stipulated the return of all Soviet nationals who were deported to Finland during the Continuation War. This meant that Finland also had to hand over all those who moved to Finland voluntarily, as well as those who fought in the ranks of the Finnish army against the Soviet union, though some had Finnish citizenship. 

The return to the Soviet Union was in many cases fatal for these people, as some of them were executed as traitors at the Soviet train station at Vyborg and some died in harsh camp conditions in Siberia. After the collapse of the Soviet Union they were allowed to return to Finland.

Some of the Soviet prisoners of war co-operated with the Finns during the war. Before the end of the war all related Finnish archives, including interrogation documents relating to co-operating prisoners, were destroyed; and these POWs' destinations after the war are uncertain. 


Some of them were secretly transported by Finnish army personnel to Sweden and some continued on as far as the United States. The highest ranking Soviet prisoner of war was Major General Vladimir Kirpichnikov, who returned to the Soviet Union. He was tried, convicted of high treason, and executed in 1950.
---------------------------
                     

                     

                     

Jatkosodan aikana suomalaiset vangitsivat 64 000 sotilasta, joista lähes 30 prosenttia menehtyi. Korkea-arvoisin suomalaisten kiinni ottama sotavanki oli kenraalimajuri Vladimir Kirpitšnikov.

Jatkosodan aikana suomalaisilla sotavankileireillä sai surmansa arviolta 20 000 vangittua puna-armeijan sotilasta. Kansallisarkiston tietokannan mukaan surmansa sai 19 085 vankia, mutta dosentti Antti Kujala arvioi kirjassaan Vankisurmat oikeammaksi luvuksi 22 000 henkilöä. 

Useimmat kuolivat sairauksiin, mutta ammuttuja oli yli 5 prosenttia eli 1 019 vankia. Määrä on kansainvälisesti vertaillen korkea. Tämän lisäksi noin 200 vankia ammuttiin ennen kuin heidät oli kirjattu vangeiksi. Syynä oli "ryssäviha", heikko kuri, elintarvikkeiden puute ja vartijoiden mielenterveysongelmat. Surmia ei yleensä organisoitu komentoportaasta, vaan väkivalta oli satunnaisempaa.

Suomen korkeimman oikeuden käsittelemissä jutuissa surmattiin rintaman takana 500 sotavankia ja rintamalla 181. Kaikki niistä eivät johtaneet tuomioon tai edes syytteeseen. Sodan jälkeen 213 henkilöä tuomittiin korkeimmassa oikeudessa sotavankisurmista. Heistä täyttä ymmärrystä vailla olleiksi todettiin 22 miestä.


Jatkosodan aikana Suomen Päämajan alainen valvontaosasto luovutti runsaat 500 kuulusteluissa kommunisteiksi tai juutalaisiksi paljastunutta suomalaisten sotavankia saksalaisille, jotka ilmeisesti välittömästi surmasivat nämä. 

Turvallisuuspoliisi Valpo taas luovutti Saksan valtaamilta alueilta kotoisin olevia henkilöitä saksalaisille palautettavaksi kotimaihinsa, huolimatta siitä että saksalaisten tiedettiin surmaavan vankeja. Osa näistä luovutetuista oli sotavankeja.
----
Jatkosodan aikana saksalaisjoukoilla oli Pohjois-Suomessa noin sata sotavankileiriä ja 30 000 neuvostoliittolaista sotavankia. Einsatzkommando Finnland -erikoisyksikkö oli perustettu erottelemaan sotavangeista ei-toivotut ainekset - lähinnä kommunistit ja juutalaiset, jotka sen jälkeen surmattiin.

Suomen Valtiollisen poliisin (Valpo I) etsivät työskentelivät erikoisyksikön alaisuudessa vuosina 1941–1942 kahdella vankileirillä kuulustelijoina ja tulkkeina. Kuulustelutietojen perusteella saksalaiset ampuivat osan vangeista.
----
                    
                                     prisoners handle cannons

                     
Vangit mukautuvat kovin pian uuteen elämäänsä. Nauru ja laulu heräävät jo toisena vankeuspäivänä. Oikealla oleva vanki ei ole 500 vangin leirin ihmeellisin mies siksi, että hän on hammaslääkäri, vaan siksi, että hänellä on mukanaan kello ja kotonaan polkupyörä. Pitkäranta 1941.08.01
------------
The prisoners will adapt very soon to their new lives.
Laughter and song awaken another day of imprisonment.
The right-hand prisoner is not the wondrous man of 500 prison camps because he is a dentist, but because he has a clock with him and at home his bicycle. Pitkäranta 1941.08.01

                        
                               two female soldiers, maybe nurses..

                        
                               soviet nurse binds the wounds

                     
                                        the wounded will rest

                    
                          the prisoner has found his own horn

                     
                           soviet choir singing practice, the next day after the capture
                     


                     

                       
                          blow away the chaff...

                      
                               carry a big pig eating

                     

                     

                      

                      
              the prisoners are eating in the farm house, where they are at work

                     
                       rye cut, and make the kuhilaat / sheafs (kuhilas = sheaf)
                      

                      

                      

                      

                     
                                   soup break
                      

                      

                    
                        Barleys cut and soon made sheaves
                   


                  
                                          Potato theatre

                     
                                             Prison coocking potatoes

                     

                     
                        Captain discusses with the prisoners

                     
                                   Campfire woods

                     
6.TtusK:n sotilasvirkailija Schavikin (=Valamon munkki) kekustelee mordvalaisen vangin Andrie Voranoffin kanssa. Voranoff oli sotaväessä 20 vuorokautta ja antautui 23-vuotiaana, Suojärvi-Tsalkki 1941.09.07
-----
6. Info comppany's military officer Schavik (= the monk of Valamo), encounters the Mordovian prisoner Andrie Voranoff. Voranoff was a Soviet Army for 20 days and surrendered at the age of 23.

                    
                        
                                    tools are sharpened

                     
                                      prisons wash the laundry

                     
                                            wash the plates

                         
                             soviet cook boiling porridge

                     
  Seated soviet Prisoners who have not gotten food for four days 
   and they are surrendered, for this reasons.

                     
                               Potato theater

                     

                     
                                             Rye and barley are recodred
                     
Nuoria suomalaisia naisia, ovat vapaaehtoisia, ja he tulevat Helsinki - Turku -Tampere, ja monet muut kaupungit, työhön maaseudulle, yhdessä vankien kanssa
-----
Young Finnish women are volunteers and they come from the Helsinki-Turku -Tampere, and many other cities, work in the countryside, together with the prisoners

                     
                                               rye recorded

                     
                 the prisoners are driving tractors that can tow the cannons

                     
                                 lifts up and the potatoes in the basement

                     

                     
                                            Skinning a dead horse
                                                     and bury

                     
                                            BT-7 to the train

                     
                                        firewood for their work

                     

                    
                                  soup break in forest

                   
                                              at the well

                     
                     
                                  The road work

                    
                    
                             Finnish prisoners (criminals) are a fortress work

                     
                                         car repair

                     
                     
                                    Stone work

                     
                                     the prisoners are baking bread

                     

                      
                                 american prisons, from russian karelia area

                     
Ensimmäiset amerikkalaiset vangit Euroopan taistelu tantereella.
Kuvassa on suomalainen Jansson niminen poika joka venäläisten vankien mukana
Luutnantti Vartio ja tämä amerikassa syntynyt poika, puhuvat selvällä suomenkielellä.
Amerikkalaiset vangit yht. 22 kpl, ovat sijoitettu yhdessä heidän ase veljet, russians, kanssa samaan leiriin. Litsa 1942.07.27
-----------
The first American prisoners on the European (battle) continent.
The photo is a Finnish boy named Jansson who is accompanied by Russian prisoners
Lieutenant Vartio and a boy born in America speak in a clear Finnish language.
American prisoners are in total. 22, they are placed together with their gun brothers, Russians, with the same camp. 

                     
                     
                     
Stalin's propaganda victims. Oricinal finnish. They came to create a new oasis of the Soviet Union
They are already robbed in the harbor, the families are scattered, the children are taken away and many adults executed immediately, and the rest who are forced to change Soviet Karelian forests, to do the forestry work. 
They coming to Usa and Kanada.
                     
                       Americans, from karelia area (finnish language peoples)

                    
Vangit, inkeriläis-suomalaiset lukemassa suomalaisia lehtiä.
Viipuri, Sotavankileiri 6 1942.09.28
-------------
The prisoners, the Inkerian Finns, are reading Finnish magazines.
Vyborg, War prison camp 6.

                     
Sotavankien viihdytystoiminta. Karhumäen suunta sotavankileirin illanviettoa, jossa vangit itse suorittaa ohjelman. Soittoa, laulua, tanssia. Suojärvi 1943.02.04
----------
Entertainment for warriors.
The bear hill region, a war imprisoned the camp, where the prisoners perform (self) the program, and play, sing, dance. 

                      
30.1. saatuja sotavankeja on tuotu JR 52:n esikuntaan. 
Vangit ovat kuuluneet rangaistuskomppaniaan, jota ryssä käytti iskujoukkona mainitun päivän hyökkäyksessä. 
Hyökkäys oli verraten suurin voimin tehty ja niinpä vihollisen tappiot olivatkin kaatuneina toistasataa miestä (meidän alueellamme).
Rukajärvi, Tunkuantie 1943.01.30
--------
30.1. the military prisoners have been brought to Inf.R 52's headquarters. 
The prisoners have been part of the punishment team, he used to serve as a crowd in the attack on that day. 
The attack was comparatively the largest in the world, and so the enemy's losses were overwhelmed by a hundred men (in our region).