Case Black

Case Black (German: Fall Schwarz), also known as the Fifth Enemy Offensive (Serbo-Croatian: Peta neprijateljska ofanziva) in Yugoslav historiography and often identified with its final phase, the Battle of the Sutjeska (Serbo-Croatian: Bitka na Sutjesci pronounced [bîtka na sûtjɛst͡si]) was a joint attack by the Axis taking place from 15 May to 16 June 1943, which aimed to destroy the main Yugoslav Partisan force, near the Sutjeska river in south-eastern Bosnia. The failure of the offensive marked a turning point for Yugoslavia during World War II.

The operation immediately followed Case White which had failed in accomplishing the same objectives: to eliminate the central Partisan formations and capture their commander, Marshal Josip Broz Tito.
Case Black
Part of World War II in Yugoslavia
Map of Case Black
Map of Case Black, superimposed on modern-day borders
Date15 May – 16 June 1943
LocationVicinity of the Sutjeska river, southeastern Bosnia, occupied Yugoslavia
  • Axis failure despite heavy Partisan casualties
 Independent State of Croatia
Commanders and leaders
Nazi Germany Alexander Löhr
Nazi Germany Rudolf Lüters
 Josip Broz Tito
127,000 men
300+ aircraft
22,148 men
Casualties and losses
German casualties:
583 killed, 1,760 wounded, 425 missing
Italian casualties:
290 killed, 541 wounded, 1,502 missing
Croatian casualties:
40 killed, 166 wounded, 205 missing
Total Axis casualties:
913 killed, 2,467 wounded, 2,132 missing
2/3 killed and wounded
(6,391–7,543 killed)
2,537 pro-Partisan civilian sympathizers executed

The Axis rallied 127,000 land troops for the offensive, including German, Italian, NDH, Bulgarian, and over 300 airplanes. The Yugoslav National Liberation Army had 22,148 soldiers in 16 brigades. After a period of troop concentration, the offensive started on 15 May 1943. The Axis troops used the advantage of better starting positions to encircle and isolate the partisans on the Durmitor mountain area, located between the Tara and Piva rivers in the mountainous areas of northern Montenegro and forced them to engage in a fierce month-long battle on waste territory.

On 9 June Tito was nearly killed when a bomb fell near the leading group, wounding him in the arm. The popular post-war report of the event credited Tito's German shepherd dog Luks, for sacrificing his life to save Tito's. Captain William F. Stuart, a Special Operations Executive operative who was parachuted into Tito's headquarters alongside Captain William Deakin during May, was killed by the explosion, as well.

Partisan commander Josip Broz Tito and Ivan Ribar during the Battle of the Sutjeska. >>>>>

Facing almost exclusively German troops, the Yugoslav National Liberation Army (YNLA) finally succeeded in breaking out across the Sutjeska river through the lines of the German 118th and 104th Jäger and 369th (Croatian) Infantry divisions in the northwestern direction, towards eastern Bosnia. 

Three brigades and the central hospital with over 2000 wounded were surrounded. Following Hitler's instructions, German commander in chief Generaloberst Alexander Löhr ordered their annihilation, including the wounded and the unarmed medical personnel. In addition, YNLA troops suffered from severe lack of food and medical supplies, and many were struck down by typhoid.

In total there were 7,543 partisan casualties, more than a third of the initial force.
The German field commander, General Rudolf Lüters in his final report described the so-called "communist rebels" as "well organized, skillfully led and with combat morale unbelievably high".
                      Kuvahaun tulos haulle Battle of the Sutjeska.

                      Kuvahaun tulos haulle Battle of the Sutjeska.

                      Kuvahaun tulos haulle Battle of the Sutjeska.

                      Kuvahaun tulos haulle Battle of the Sutjeska.

The successful Partisan breakout helped their reputation as a viable fighting force with the local populace. Consequently, they were able to replenish their losses with new recruits, regroup, and mount a series of counterattacks in eastern Bosnia, clearing Axis garrisons of Vlasenica, Srebrenica, Olovo, Kladanj and Zvornik in the following 20 days.

The battle marked a turning point toward Partisan control of Yugoslavia, and became an integral part of the Yugoslav post-war mythology, celebrating the self-sacrifice, extreme suffering and moral firmness of the partisans.
Allied order of battle
Partisan commander Josip Broz Tito and Ivan Ribar during the Battle of the Sutjeska.
Democratic Federal Yugoslavia Yugoslav Partisans (Partisans Main Operational Group)

1st Proletarian Division
2nd Proletarian Division
3rd Assault Division
7th Banija Division
6th Proletarian Brigade
15th Majevica Brigade

Axis order of battle 
7th SS Volunteer Mountain Division Prinz Eugen
1st Mountain Division
118th Jäger Division
369th (Croatian) Infantry Division
Regiment 4 Brandenburg
reinforced 724th Infantry Regiment (104th Jäger Division)

1 Alpine Division Taurinense
19 Infantry (Mountain) Division Venezia
23 Infantry Division Ferrara
32 Infantry Division Marche
151 Infantry Division Perugia
154 Infantry Division Murge
forces of Sector Podgorica
 Independent State of Croatia
4th Home Guard Jäger Brigade

63rd Infantry Regiment
61st Infantry Regiment also in the area

(both units under the command of the 369th (Croatian) Infantry Division)


Bantam (Jeep = GP)

When it became clear that the United States would be involved in the European theatre of World War II, the US Army contacted 135 companies to create working prototypes of a four-wheel-drive reconnaissance car. 

Only two companies responded: American Bantam Car Company and Willys-Overland. The Army set a seemingly impossible deadline of 49 days to supply a working prototype. Willys asked for more time, but was refused. 

The broke American Bantam Car Company had only a skeleton staff left on the payroll and solicited Karl Probst, a talented freelance designer from Detroit. After turning down Bantam's initial request, Probst responded to an Army request and began work on July 17, 1940, initially without salary.

Probst laid out full plans for the Bantam prototype, known as the BRC or Bantam Reconnaissance Car, in just two days, working up a cost estimate the next day. Bantam's bid was submitted, complete with blueprints, on July 22.  While much of the vehicle could be assembled from off-the-shelf automotive parts, custom four-wheel drivetrain components were to be supplied by Spicer. 

The hand-built prototype was completed in Butler, Pennsylvania, and driven to Camp Holabird, Maryland, delivered for Army testing on September 23. The vehicle met all the Army's criteria except engine torque.

World War II had already begun in Asia, with Japan expanding in China, Manchuria and Southeast Asia. The Imperial Japanese Army used a small four-wheel-drive car for reconnaissance and troop movements, having introduced the Kurogane Type 95 in 1936.
UAZ Jeep.

                      Kuvahaun tulos haulle ww2 uaz jeep

                                          Big UAZ-jeep, 2-ton.

Bantam car, austin licence

                                                also for civilian use

                                           also happy single man...

                                           and the family also
Final production version Jeeps built by Willys-Overland were the Model MB, while those built by Ford were the Model GPW (G =government vehicle, P designated the 80" wheelbase, and W = the Willys engine design). There were subtle differences between the two. The versions produced by Ford had every component (including bolt heads) marked with an "F". Willys also followed the Ford pattern by stamping its name into some body parts, but stopped this in 1942.  The cost per vehicle trended upwards as the war continued from the price under the first contract from Willys at US$648.74 (Ford's was $782.59 per unit). Willys-Overland and Ford, under the direction of Charles E. Sorensen (Vice-President of Ford during World War II), produced about 640,000 Jeeps towards the war effort, which accounted for approximately 18% of all the wheeled military vehicles built in the US during the war. 

Jeeps were used by every service of the US military. An average of 145 were supplied to every Army infantry regiment. Jeeps were used for many purposes, including cable laying, saw milling, as firefighting pumpers, field ambulances, tractors and, with suitable wheels, would even run on railway tracks. An amphibious jeep, the model GPA, or "seep" (Sea Jeep) was built for Ford in modest numbers but it could not be considered a huge success - it was neither a good off-road vehicle nor a good boat. As part of the war effort, nearly 30% of all Jeep production was supplied to Great Britain and to the Soviet Red Army .



The Krummlauf (English: "curved barrel") is a bent barrel attachment for the Sturmgewehr 44 assault rifle developed by Germany in World War II. The curved barrel included a periscope sighting device for shooting around corners from a safe position.

                     Kuvahaun tulos haulle Krummlauf curved gun barrel

                     Kuvahaun tulos haulle Krummlauf curved gun barrel

It was produced in several variants: an "I" version for infantry use, a "P" version for use in tanks (to cover the dead areas in the close range around the tank, to defend against assaulting infantry), versions with 30°, 45°, 60° and 90° bends, a version for the StG 44 and one for the MG 42. Only the 30° "I" version for the StG 44 was produced in any numbers. The bent barrel attachments had very short lifespans – approx. 300 rounds for the 30° version, and 160 rounds for the 45° variant–as the barrel and bullets fired were put under great stress. Another problem besides the short life-span was that the bending caused the bullets to shatter and exit the barrel in multiple fragments, producing an unintended shotgun effect. 

As a result, weapons designers experimented with small vent holes drilled into the Krummlauf's barrel in order to reduce pressure and recoil, allowing the discharged bullets' built-up gases to be released to slow the bullet's velocity as it turned to exit the barrel. Nevertheless, the Krummlauf's lifespan remained the same. The 30° model was able to achieve a 35x35 cm grouping at 100m. One of the biggest drawbacks of the small number (91 conversions) of Panzerjäger Tiger (P) casemate-type tank destroyers was that in spite of having a 88mm anti tank gun, the initial Ferdinand version of the Elefant did not have a forward-facing hull mount machine gun to handle enemy infantry. Hence, the Krummlauf was fitted with the Stg44 Gun and used by the tank crew as a machine gun.

Experiments to adapt the Krummlauf to the PPSh-41 were conducted by the Soviet Union.